As Messi chanted and took off his boots, the Argentina captain appeared to kick a Mexico shirt that was on the floor.
Canelo, who has won world championships in four weight classes throughout his career, felt Messi's actions were intentional and tweeted: "Did you see Messi cleaning the floor with our jersey and flag????
"He better pray to God that I don't find him!! Just like I respect Argentina, he has to respect Mexico!
"I'm not talking about the country as a whole, just about the bulls--- that Messi did."
Many fans from around the world were quick to point out that Messi was only taking his boots off when he accidentally touched the Mexican jersey.
Así como respeto Argentina tiene que respetar mexico!! no hablo del país(argentina) hablo de messi por su mamada que hizo. 👊🏻🔥— Canelo Alvarez (@Canelo) November 28, 2022
Others urged Canelo not to encourage violence and take things out of context.
Canelo defended his claim and added: "From the moment the Mexico jersey is on the floor it's already an insult," to which former Argentina striker Sergio Aguero responded.
"Mr. Canelo, don't look for excuses or problems, surely you don't know about soccer and what happens in a locker room," Aguero said on Twitter.
"The jerseys are always on the floor after games due to sweat and then if you see well, he makes the movement to remove the boot and accidentally hits it."
The Albiceleste take on Group C leaders Poland in their final group game on Wednesday, while Mexico, at the bottom of the group, need a win against Saudi Arabia to have any chance of progressing.