Former Qatar international Khalid Salman told German broadcaster ZDF on Tuesday that homosexuality was "damage in the mind" and said gay fans would have to "accept our rules," referring to homosexuality being illegal in the Gulf state.
Goretzka hit back at those observations after Bayern's 6-1 win against Werder Bremen, during which fans unveiled banners showing their opposition to Salman's comments.
"It's very oppressive," Goretzka said. "This is an image of a man that comes from another millennium.
"It leaves you speechless that something like this can be said by a World Cup ambassador shortly before a World Cup."
On Tuesday a group of LGBTQ+ activists protested outside the FIFA museum in Zurich, Switzerland, calling for action on Qatar's anti-gay laws.
But FIFA has written to the 32 countries participating in the World Cup to urge them to "focus on the football" rather than getting involved in political issues.